The Settlement of Jews in Gibraltar, 1704—1783

1. Gibraltar becomes British 1704

In May 1704, the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet sailed from Lisbon for the Mediterranean. Britain, Holland, Portugal, and Austria were at war against France and Spain in support of the candidature of the Archduke Charles (the son of the Emperor of Austria) to the Spanish throne, in opposition to Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV of France. The fleet was commanded by Sir George Rooke, with the Dutch Admiral van der Dussen second in command, and was under instructions to co-operate with the Duke of Savoy, engage the French fleet if possible, and alarm the Spanish coast. The fleet appeared off Barcelona but did not have the friendly reception anticipated and was unable to capture the town, so it continued its cruise along the coast of Spain with a view to attacking Cadiz again, but on 28 July at a Council of War held in the

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