The reaction in England to the kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara*

On 3 September 2000 the Vatican announced that Pius IX had been beati? fied,1 the final step before canonization as a saint. Pius IX reigned as pope from 1846 to 1878. To Catholic historians he was the pope who formulated the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and of Papal Infallibility. The former was formulated in 1854, published in the encyclical of 8 December 1854 and ‘confirmed’ by the ‘Visions at Lourdes’ in 1858, coincidentally at almost the same time as Edgardo Mortara was being taken by the forces of the Inquisition to Rome. The doctrine of Papal Infallibility in matters of faith and morals was announced in his encyclical of 9 November 1846 and confirmed at the First Vatican Council in 1870.2 To political historians it was during his reign that papal rule was overthrown in all the Papal States and the pope was left solely with the Vatican. To

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