The London Jewry: William I to John

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The history of the English medieval Jewry extends from the years immediately following the Norman Conquest to Iz90. The topography, character and vicissi- tudes of the London Jewry from the reign of John to the general expulsion of I z9o have already been reviewed in the previous volume of }eu'ish Histon.cal Studies, referred to as Part I below.((J. Brnaby, _London: the I3th-century Jewry revisited Trans]HSE XXXII (I990-2) 89- 158. An important article published in 1993 by John Schofield et al. _Medieval Building and Property Development in the Area of Cheapside Trans London Middlesex Archaeological Soc 41 (1990) 39-237 should be added to the references given in n. 3 of the above.)) What foHows is a consideration of the earlier period.

For the I3th century a wide range of primary sources is available. These include such great series of state records as the Charter Rolls, the Close and Patent Rolls, the Fine and Liberate RoHs and the Inquisitions Miscellaneous and Post Mortem. In addition there is that remarkable series of state records concerned exclusively with theJewry, the Plea RoHs of the Exchequer of theJews, of which the Society has pubHshed four volumes of calendars, to which a fifth volume, Sarah Cohen's transcript of the Latin text for I 277-9, was added in I99z.((J. M. Rigg, Sir Hilary Jenkinson, H. G. Richardson et al. (eds) Calendar of the Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews 5 vols (190502) (hereafter E.))

For the I2th century it is the very opposite. Only one series of pubHc records is available - the Pipe RoHs.((Pip e Rolls (hereafter PpR):J. Hunter (ed.) Magnum rotulum scaccan~i . . . anno tricesimo-primo regni Henna. primi (HMSO I929);J. Hunter (ed.) Great Rolls of the Pipe z, 3 and 4 Hent:y II, AD n55B (Record Commission I844); Great Roll of the Pipe, n59-1216 Pipe Roll Soc. (I884-196I).)) These are the records of the annual audit of the accounts of the sheriffs, the king's representatives in each shire, taken before the barons of the court of the Upper Exchequer. The oldest surviving roll is for the thirty-first year of Henry I's reign, I I30I . This contains invaluable material relating to the earliest recorded financial relations between the Crown and mem- bers of the English Jewry. However, the full series of Pipe Rolls begins only in the second year of Henry lI's reign, that is the exchequer year ending at Michaelmas I 155. For additional information we have to rely on the monastic chroniclers, not always a dispassionate source. Nevertheless, the work of H. G. Richardson on The]ems of Angecin England has thrown a sharp light on the inter- pretation of this limited range of primary material.((H. G. Richardson, The English]emr)' under the Angevin Kings (London I960).))

The tum of the century witnesses a remarkable change. The Charter Rolls begin in I 194, and withJohn's reign we reach firm ground. The Fine and Memor- anda Rolls commence in I 199, the Liberate Rolls in IzOO, the Patent Rolls in IzOI and Close RoHs in

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