[This paper, read before the Society on March 1, 1902, was prepared with a view to examining the theory recently put forward by Dr. Gaster in his history of the Sephardi Synagogue, that there was no organised Jewish community in London previously to 1664, and that the Royal Order of that year constituted the fundamental charter of Jewish residence in England. It must be read as a sequel to the author’s Menasseh ben Israel’s Mission to Oliver Cromwell.]

The closing days of the Protectorate were calm and unclouded for the little Jewish community of London. Before the masterful will of Cromwell the anti-Semites subsided into cowed silence, and while he lived not a voice was raised in protest against the heretical congrega? tion to which he had given the light of his countenance. The battle had been fought and decided, and on both sides the combatants returned to their ordinary

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Lucien Wolf

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