Some Ashkenazi Charities* in London at the End of the Eighteenth and the Beginning of the Nineteenth Centuries

WHEN, some time ago, I undertook to address you, I had found a hitherto unknown MS. in the Mocatta Library, which contains the rules and minutes of a charity for the feeding, clothing, teaching and apprenticing of orphans. The MS. was written in 1795, partly in mediaeval aramaizing Hebrew, partly in Judaeo-German, with only a very occasional sprinkling of an English terminus technicus in between.

It was obvious from the outset that the programme of this charity cannot be put before you by way of a mere descriptive account of its contents. Other, earlier and later, Jewish and non-Jewish institutions of its kind will have to be discussed to set the Hebhra Qaddisha De-rahme Le-ghaddel Yathme Qetannim2 [sic] into its proper frame.

The end of the eighteenth century marks a decisive, though long prepared and clearly foreseeable turning point in European and particularly in Jewish history. The establishment and re-organization

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