8. Passes Issued to Jews in the Period 1689 to 1696.
The support given by Louis XIV to the Stuart cause rendered it neces? sary for the Government of William III to watch carefully the passage of travellers, to and from the Continent, in the last decade of the seven? teenth century. The main purpose of this vigilance was, under the aegis of the Grand Alliance, to prevent Jacobite intercourse with France. Hence we find several references in the English State Papers (Domestic Series, William and Mary) to the stringent measures taken for checking the arrival or departure of people without necessary passes. It is inter? esting, however, to observe that Jews were not among the suspects. Thus, when Moses Dejaco and party were stopped at Margate in May 1692 because they were unprovided with passes, they were at once permitted to continue their journey to London when it was certified that they were " all Jews and in no way disaffected to the Government." Even more interesting is the entry on October 30, 1696, when " Richard Chapman " received a pass enabling him to go to Italy. The appearance of "Richard Chapman" in this series of extracts is explained by the following official explanation (Calendar, 1696, p. 427):-
Note.?The true name of Richard Chapman is Isaac Fernandez, but, being a Jew, and going in an Italian ship that was to touch at a Spanish port, he was forced to change his name for fear of being put in the inquisi? tion. This was done upon the assurance Mr. Rodrigues gave Mr*. Ellis of his being an honest man, and having no other than the aforesaid reason for changing his name.
From the same point of view, attention may also be directed to the list of names?obviously Marrano?under date October 18, 1694.
The number of passes issued between the years covered by our extracts (1689-1696) was very great. The persons to whom the passes were issued included representatives of all social ranks, English and foreign. The nature of the pass may be seen from the form printed in Mr. Hubert Hall's Formula Book, Diplomatic Documents (Cambridge, 1908), p. 151. Among the recipients of passes were many Jews. Of these a considerable number are designated " poor Jews." This label seems merely a method of classification, to distinguish the persons so described from merchants and other persons of recognised standing. Jews are not the only persons so labelled. We often meet the phrase " poor French Protestants," and less often " a poor Dutchman " ; once simply " a poor old woman."
Besides those specifically entered as Jews, there are undoubtedly many Jews, not so described. In these extracts only those are included who are termed Jews, or who may without further research be assumed to belong to that category. It is possible that some names have been wrongly included and excluded, but this can only have occurred in a few cases.
AVhen the persons are not described in the Calendars as Jews,