He wrote a charming essay in Threc Hundred Years, published in 1957 in connection with the tercentenary celebrations, entitled _On being the "Oldest Inhabitant" ', in which he pointed out that seven generations had passed since his ancestor Isaac Nunes Carvalho settled in England. He then went on to argue that _Carvajal', the surname of the first founder of our Community, was just a Spanish translation of _Carvalho'. This misled some readers to suppose that Robert was a relative of Antonio Femandes Carvajal, which was not so, and went beyond Robert's claim. We now know that Carvajal's Portuguese surname was not _Carvalho', but _Carvalhal', after the village where his father was born. He also was at pains to point out the importance of his Ashkenazi ancestry. Robert Carvalho was for many years an active member of our Council and served as our President in 1971 -3. Our sympathy goes out to his widow, Esther, who survives him.
Dorothy Stone (I908-I995)
Dorothy Stone served as Honorary Treasurer of the Jewish Historical Society from 1962 to 1982 and as President for two sessions from 1982 to 1984. Her Brst presidential paper, on Sir Hirsch Lauterpacht, was printed in volume XXVIII of Transactions. Her second address, on her fellow-Mancunian, Louis Golding, consisted of personal reminiscences. Her husband, Hyman, was a generous bene- factor to the Society - the volume of essays entitled Three Centuries of Anglo-]em which was published in 1961 , records at least some of that generosity - and served for several years as Honorary Treasurer before Dorothy succeeded him.
The law was in Dorothy Stones blood. She inherited an appreciation ofJewish law from her grandfather, Rabbi Sandelson of Newcastle, and, although she never claimed close familiarity with it, she knew enough about this discipline, as I know from the many conversations we had on the subject, to be able to discuss percept- ively comparisons between the ha/akhah and British law. In the latter she excelled, taking her law degree at Manchester University, and over many years serving with distinction on bodies concerned with legal reform. Hyman and Dorothy's brothers were lawyers, and her sons also belong to the noble profession. Yet Dorothy's passion for justice, her keen interest in Jewish history, her love of music, her wide reading of books ancient and modem, her Northern frankness wedded to consideration for the feelings of others, all gave the Re, if such were needed, to what used to be the conventional picture of the lawyer dry as dust.
Like the biblical heroine Deborah, whose Hebrew name she bore, Dorothy was a leader of men. The statement in the Book ofJudges that Deborah _judged Israel' is interpreted variously in the Jewish tradition. Medieval feminists before their time in France understood the'biblical passage to mean that Deborah was actually a judge, with the conclusion that there is no objection in Jewish law to a woman occupying this position. Others of a more male chauvinistic cast of mind declared that a