Less than half-a-centiiry after their restoration to England,1 the Jews had become thoroughly English, even as chauvinistically so, as the most loyal of their fellow-citizens. It is accordingly not surprising to find that when Queen Mary died, the Jews mourned her tragic end very sincerely and very deeply. Everybody remembers the fine passage in Macaulay’s History in which her fatal illness is described, the heroism with which she received the intimation of her danger?how she ” gave orders that every lady of her bedchamber, every maid of honour, nay, every menial servant, who had not had the small-pox, should instantly leave Kensington House,” and how when she died ” her virtues were celebrated in almost every parish church of the capital, and in almost every great meeting of Nonconformists.” Among these last, though the historian does not say so, the Jews were evidently included, if we are to believe the

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