António Fernandes Carvajal’s grandmother

Antonio Fernandes Carvajal, the founder of the modern Jewish community in Britain, was born in about 15961 and brought up in Fund?o, Portugal’s cloth-producing town, for in 1656 he certified that he knew the parents and kindred of Antonio Rodrigues Robles in Fund?o.2 He lived and traded in the Canaries and Rouen and settled in London in about 1635. Having been baptized as a child in Portugal, where the profession or practice of Judaism was a capital crime, he and his wife conformed to Roman Catholic practice, while secretly observing Jewish rites in the privacy of their home. In London, as a subject of the King of Spain, Carvajal attended Mass at the Spanish Ambassador’s chapel, but when England went to war with Spain in 1654, he and his sons took English nationality by endenization.3 They then converted to open Judaism, taking the names of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob on

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