A magnate among the marchers: Hamo of Hereford, his family and clients, 1218-1253

The Commune Iudeorum of 13th-century England was made up of a series of interlocking urban communities.((H. G. Richardson, The English Jewry under the Angevin Kings (1960) 83. 4The Jew was a town-dweller. Whatever his occupation he was not an agriculturalist.* This was the case in England, but on the Continent the extent to which Jews were primarily urban and mercantile is a more complex matter. On this and the Stereotypie character implied by Richardson see G. I. Langmuir, Traditio 19 (1963), especially 210 21.)) By 1221 seventeen had received official recognition in the form of a chest in which details of all loans had to be lodged. A number of others were recognized for short periods subsequently (Fig. I).((By 1241 chests had been established for Jewries at Warwick, Dorchester, Marlborough and Bedford, and later, for brief periods, at Huntingdon, Ipswich, Sudbury and Devizes, H. G. Richardson (see n. 1) 14-17.

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